For a long time, Hanoi has been the country’s largest centre for education and training, gathering talent from every region.

The tradition of fondness for learning and respect for teachers among Hanoians has laid a strong foundation for the development of the city’s education sector.

In 1010, when King Ly Thai To chose Thang Long as the capital, this foundation upon which to build a city of learning was established and developed with the creation of Van Mieu (The Temple of Literature) in 1070, and Quoc Tu Giam, the Royal College, in 1076, Vietnam’s first university.

Since then, Thang Long has become the venue for examination and training talent for the country. Many famous schools are associated with outstanding teachers, such as Chu Van An, whose students were also very well known.

At Van Mieu-Quoc Tu Giam, as many as 2,248 doctoral degrees were granted through 124 examinations over the course of many dynasties. Their names are still honoured on the 82 steles still found on the temple grounds.

Thang Long-Hanoi is considered as the cradle of numerous celebrities like Tran Lo, Nguyen Kieu, Ngo Thi Nham, Nguyen Gia Phan, Dang Tran Con and Nguyen Van Sieu.

In the French colonial period, Hanoi was the first locality in the country to open colleges and universities and had the largest number. Noteworthy was the Indochina University in 1907 and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in 1913.

Between 1956-1958, in the first years after Hanoi was liberated from the French colonists, Hanoi focused on eradicating illiteracy and its efforts were then developed nationwide.

During the war, despite the US air force strafing the northern region, Hanoi ’s teachers and students continued going to school.

When the country was reunified in 1975, Hanoi began to undertake a reform of its system of education to make it more comprehensive, so that the city will always lead in every field of education.

At present, Hanoi has 84 colleges and universities, making up 22.3 percent of the county’s total, with a high rate of outstanding teachers and many achievements in the application of education reform.

The city also led in the number of students winning prizes at international and national contests.

In 2009, Hanoi teams won 73 first prizes at national academic contests, ranking first among localities nationwide. Additionally, Hanoi students won two gold and four bronze medals and one consolidation prize at international biology, physics and IT contests.

Hanoi completed universalisation of primary education in 1990 and of junior high-school in 1999. The city plans to complete the universalisation of senior high-school education this year to become the leading locality in every field of education./.