Since its establishment, the Communist Party of Vietnam has held 10 Congresses. Each Congress is considered an important historical milestone in recognising the Vietnamese revolution’s victories, achievements and lessons.

Here is an introduction to each Congress as summarised by the Vietnam News Agency.

A conference to unite Communist organisations in Vietnam , presided over by Nguyen Ai Quoc, took place from February 3-7, 1930 in Kowloon, Hong Kong ( China ). This was an event of historical significance as the Congress establishing the Communist Party of Vietnam.

The conference passed the Party’s Brief Political Platform, Brief Policy and Brief Statutes and outlined guidelines for national liberation and the advance towards socialism.

The first plenum of the Party Central Committee, which was held in Hong Kong from October 14-31, 1930, decided to rename the Communist Party of Vietnam the Communist Party of Indochina and adopted the political programme and important resolutions on urgent tasks to mobilise particular groups of the masses. The meeting elected the official Party Central Committee with Tran Phu being the General Secretary.

- The First National Party Congress: consolidating and developing forces to lead the whole nation to fight imperialism and wars.

Immediately after its establishment, the Party led the movement for national liberation to initial victories, with the Soviet-Nghe Tinh movement (1930-1931) being the peak.

Following these victories, the French colonialists suppressed the patriotism movement. Party General Secretary Tran Phu and many other communists were arrested. Following the direction of the Communist International, the Overseas Directing Bureau (Overseas Bureau) of the Communist Party of Indochina was established in early 1934 with Le Hong Phong as the secretary. The bureau played a leading role and restructured the Party Central Committee.

- The first National Party Congress took place in Macau , China , from March 27-31, 1935, with the participation of 13 delegates from domestic Party committees as well as overseas Party organisations. The Congress was presided over by Ha Huy Tap.

It reviewed the restoration of the Party organisation and the people’s movement, and mentioned three key tasks: consolidating and developing the Party, intensifying mass mobilisation and increasing public awareness of the anti-imperialism and anti-war cause.

The Congress elected the 13-member Party Central Committee. Leader Nguyen Ai Quoc was nominated the Party representative to the Communist International. Le Hong Phong was elected as Party General Secretary.

The first National Party Congress was an important historical event, marking the fundamental victory of the struggle to preserve and restore the organisational system of the Party from the central to grassroots levels.
A meeting of the Party Central Committee was held in Shanghai , China , in July 1936 to identify the Party’s new guidelines on revolutionary strategy and tactics in Indochina . The meeting elected Ha Huy Tap as General Secretary.

In March 1938, the Party Central Committee met and decided to expand the Indochina Democratic United Front. At the meeting, Nguyen Van Cu was elected to the Party Central Committee’s Standing Board and then the General Secretary.

The Party Central Committee meeting chaired by Cu in November 1939 decided to adjust the strategic directions of the Indochinese revolution making them suitable for the new situation. After that time, the revolutionary movement saw huge support throughout the country, leading the way for the General Uprising.

- The second National Party Congress: the Party led the whole nation in resistance and national construction.

Right after the victory of the August Revolution, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam made debut. The nation and regime faced life-threatening challenges: the armed forces of Jiang Jie Shi overflowed North Vietnam together with reactionary parties; and the French army, supported by the UK forces, returned to occupy the South, with the common aim of quelling the first young state of workers and peasants in Southeast Asia .

At the same time, the country coped with three difficulties, outside and inside enemies as well as the consequences of 80 years of suffering from the severe oppression and exploitation of the feudalism and colonialism with the most severe consequence being the famine in 1945 that killed more than 2 million people.

Amid the precarious situation, the Party Central Committee, the Government and President Ho Chi Minh focused on leading the resistance war, cleverly eliminating enemies and preparing conditions and forces for a long-lasting resistance war.

President Ho Chi Minh launched a campaign against hunger, illiteracy, and invaders, and he encouraged all the people to increase production; organised the General Election, elected the first National Assembly, established the Government and promulgated the 1946 Constitution.

To defend peace and national independence, we persistently negotiated with the French colonialists. However, the colonialists determined to re-conquer our country. They provoked incidents in Lang Son, Hai Phong and then Hanoi . The more concessions we made, the more the French colonialists use them to encroach upon our rights, forcing the nation to fight.
On December 19, 1946 President Ho Chi Minh called for a national resistance with the determination: "We would rather sacrifice all than lose our independence and be enslaved."

In order to further develop guidelines for resistance and national construction, the Party Central Committee decided to summon the second National Party Congress.

The congress took place in Chiem Hoa district’s Vinh Quang commune in the northern province of Tuyen Quang from Feb. 11-19, 1951, with the participation of 158 official and 53 alternate delegates, who represented more than 760,000 Party members. The congress was also attended by delegates from the Communist Parties of China and Thailand .

The congress passed a resolution to operate the Party in a public way and renamed it “the Vietnam Workers’ Party” and approved the Party’s Political Platform and its new Declaration and Statutes.

The congress elected a Party Central Committee that consisted of 19 official members and 10 alternate members. Ho Chi Minh was elected as the President of the Party Central Committee and Truong Chinh was re-elected as General Secretary.

The second National Party Congress was an event of great significance, marking a new step-forward of the Party and preparing all conditions to make the resistance war against French colonialists a complete success.

- The third National Party Congress: Building socialism in the north and struggle for liberation in the South.

The resistance war against French colonialists ended successfully. The Party directed the people in the northern region to restore the economy and build socialism along with strengthened the armed forces to defend the North and give assistance to the South.

Southern people continued to confront with US invaders, who established a dictatorial regime with a plot to turn southern Vietnam into a new-style colony and the US imperialists’ military base, and to partition the country for a long time.

With Bill 10/59, the nepotism regime of Ngo Dinh Diem d ragged the guillotine everywhere and barbarously massacr ed patriots.

While the revolution in South Vietnam was facing various difficulties, Le Duan in his capacity as member of the Party Politburo and Secretary of the Nam Bo (Southern region) Party Committee wrote the draft of “ The Path of Revolution in the South”, which says: “T here is no other path for the people of the South but the path of revolution.”

The resolution of the 15th Party Central Committee conference (January 1959) clearly defined guidelines of the revolution in the South, which combined political struggle with armed struggle alongside boosting the struggle movement of people in the southern region.

The important resolution created a considerable breakthrough in the revolutionary cause of the people nationwide, helping perfect the Party’s guidelines for the resistance war against US aggressors and national salvation. Since then, the struggle movement of the people in the southern region had spread out, particularly the “general uprising” for destroying the enemy’s grip and seizing power.

The development of the northern and southern regions’ revolution created positive changes for the whole nation. The Party held the third National Congress from Sept. 5-10, 1960 saw the participation of 525 official and 51 alternate delegates who represented more than 500,000 Party members.

Addressing the congress’ opening ceremony, President Ho Chi Minh said: “This is the congress of building socialism in the North and struggling for peace and national reunification.”

The congress elected a Central Committee that consisted of 47 official and 31 alternate members. President Ho Chi Minh was re-elected as the Party’s President (He hold the position until he passed away in September 1969); and Le Duan was elected as First Secretary of the Party Central Committee.

With the Party’s sound revolutionary guidelines coupled with great sacrifice of the heroic Vietnamese people, the nation’s revolution has gained great victories. (To be continued)./.